By Frederick E. Hoxie
"This is a crucial publication. within the latter 19th century, assorted and influential components in white the USA mixed forces to settle the 'Indian query' via assimilation. . . . the implications have been the primarily treaty-breaking Dawes Act of 1887, similar laws, and doubtful court docket judgements. Schoolteachers and missionaries have been dispatched to the reservations en masse. Eventual 'citizenship' with no sensible rights used to be given local american citizens; the Indians misplaced two-thirds of reservation land because it had existed ahead of the assimilationist crusade. . . . With perception and talent that pass well past craft, Hoxie has admirably outlined matters and causes, put economic/political/social interplay into cogent viewpoint, introduced various Anglo and Indian contributors and agencies to existence, and set forth very important lessons."-Choice. "This major learn of Indian-white relatives in the course of a fancy time in nationwide politics merits shut attention."-American Indian Quarterly. "Important and intellectually tough . . . This quantity is going some distance to fill a wide hole within the historical past of usa Indian policy."-Journal of yank heritage. Frederick E. Hoxie is director of the D'Arcy McNickle heart for the background of the yankee Indian on the Newberry Library. He coedited (with Joan Mark) E. Jane Gay's With the Nez Perc?s: Alice Fletcher within the box, 1889-92 (Nebraska 1981).
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Additional info for A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920
Meeker’s honesty and good intentions were irrelevant. ”9 Two events at the end of 1879 ampliﬁed the papers’ criticisms. First, Standing Bear made an extensive tour of the East Coast. Appearing before large audiences in Chicago, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, the newly freed Ponca chief condemned the reservation system and called for the extension of constitutional guarantees to Indians. Second, in December a well-publicized dispute arose between the secretary of the interior and critics of the government’s Indian policy.
Building on this tradition, Morgan taught that societal development occurred in three stages savagery, barbarism, and civilization and that all people could be placed at one of these levels. The order and clarity of this perspective appealed to students of Indian life, but it was also attractive because it combined sympathy for the “savage” tribes with a justiﬁcation for “civilization’s” conquest. A century ago it seemed clear to most Americans that native 18 The Appeal of Assimilation people ﬁt into a lower stage of culture.
The Standing Bear case promised to raise the eccentric journalist from frontier obscurity, and Tibbles was determined to make the most of the opportunity. Within a few days of his ﬁrst interviews with General Crook and the chief, the newspaperman was sending stories over the wire to Chicago and New York. In July, after Standing Bear was released, Tibbles traveled east to arrange a fall tour. The purpose of the trip would be to publicize the evils of the reservation system and raise money for future court action.
A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920 by Frederick E. Hoxie